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'Ajā'ib al-makhlūqāt wa gharā'ib al-mawjūdāt‛ ('Ajā'ib-Nāmeh). Muḥammad b. Maḥmūd b. Aḥmad Ṭūsī Salmānī. Ms. Supplément Persan 332. BnF, folio 21v.'Ajā'ib al-makhlūqāt wa gharā'ib al-mawjūdāt‛ ('Ajā'ib-Nāmeh). Muḥammad b. Maḥmūd b. Aḥmad Ṭūsī Salmānī. Ms. Supplément Persan 332. BnF, folio 21v.


Walters Ms. W.593, Wonders of creation


ʿAjāyib al-makhlūqāt va-gharāyib al-mawjūdāt

Vernacular: عجايب المخلوقات وغرايب الموجودات


authorShams al-Dīn Muḥammad ibn Maḥmūd ibn Aḥmad al-Salmānī al-Ṭūsī شمس الدين محمد بن محمود بن احمد السلمانى الطوسى

Note: The author's name is given in the roundels on fols. 1a and 3b. He lived in the sixth century/ twelfth century. 

my comment: This information contradicts the one given in the following description of the content of the manuscript.


This is an illuminated and illustrated copy of a Persian version of the famous ʿAjā’ib al-makhlūqāt (Wonders of creation) by Zakariyāʾ al-Qazwīnī (d. 682 AH / 1283 CE), composed by Shams al-Dīn Muḥammad al-Ṭūsī (fl. sixth century AH / twelfth CE). [this is a contradiction] The text, in black nastaʿlīq script, may have been written by an Iranian scribe in the tenth century/ sixteenth century in Ottoman Anatolia (Istanbul or Bursa ?). It opens with an illuminated medallion inscribed with the author's name (fol. 1a), followed by a double-page illuminated incipit (fols. 1b-2a). The text is illustrated with one hundred eighty-one paintings of different sizes that offer an interesting iconography for Ṭūsī manuscripts. The red leather binding is not contemporary with the manuscript and probably dates to the thirteenth century/ nineteenth century.


fol. 1a: 

  1. W.593, fol. 1a
  2. Title: Illuminated medallion inscribed with author's name
  3. Form: Frontispiece; Medallion
  4. Label: This illuminated medallion is inscribed with the author's name, Shams al-Dīn Muḥammad ibn Maḥmūd ibn Aḥmad al-Salmānī al-Ṭūsī.

fol. 1b: 

  1. W.593, fol. 1b
  2. Title: Double-page illuminated incipit
  3. Form: Incipit
  4. Label: This is the right side of a double-page illuminated incipit inscribed with the title of the manuscript and the first lines of the preface.

fol. 2a: 

  1. W.593, fol. 2a
  2. Title: Double-page illuminated incipit
  3. Form: Incipit
  4. Label: This is the left side of a double-page illuminated incipit inscribed with the title of the manuscript and the first lines of the preface.

fol. 3b: 

  1. W.593, fol. 3b
  2. Title: The prophet Abraham and the four birds he brought to life
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 9b: 

  1. W.593, fol. 9b
  2. Title: Four angels carrying the throne of God (the orbit)
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 10b: 

  1. W.593, fol. 10b
  2. Title: The angel Isrāfīl with his trumpet
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 11a: 

  1. W.593, fol. 11a
  2. Title: Two angels
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 12a: 

  1. W.593, fol. 12a
  2. Title: Two angels
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 13a: 

  1. W.593, fol. 13a
  2. Title: An angel looks at a dead man lying on the ground
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 18a: 

  1. W.593, fol. 18a
  2. Title: The sun depicted as a king
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 19b: 

  1. W.593, fol. 19b
  2. Title: The moon represented by two angels embracing each other
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 20a: 

  1. W.593, fol. 20a
  2. Title: Saturn with several attributes, including a dragon, a simurgh, and jugs
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 20b: 

  1. W.593, fol. 20b
  2. Title: Jupiter as a king enthroned
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 21a: 

  1. W.593, fol. 21a
  2. Title: Mars with many attributes
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 21b: 

  1. W.593, fol. 21b
  2. Title: Venus accompanied by six women
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 22a: 

  1. W.593, fol. 22a
  2. Title: Mercury as a prince
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 24a: 

  1. W.593, fol. 24a
  2. Title: Aries and Taurus
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 24b: 

  1. W.593, fol. 24b
  2. Title: Gemini
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 25a: 

  1. W.593, fol. 25a
  2. Title: Cancer and Leo (and the sun combined)
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 25b: 

  1. W.593, fol. 25b
  2. Title: Virgo and Libra
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 26a: 

  1. W.593, fol. 26a
  2. Title: Scorpio
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 26b: 

  1. W.593, fol. 26b
  2. Title: Sagittarius and Capricorn
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 27a: 

  1. W.593, fol. 27a
  2. Title: Aquarius
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 27b: 

  1. W.593, fol. 27b
  2. Title: Pisces; an old woman under a tree and a child jumping from the tree
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 28a: 

  1. W.593, fol. 28a
  2. Title: The Prophet Muhammad’s ascension into heaven
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 32a: 

  1. W.593, fol. 32a
  2. Title: A fabulous creature in Sind that appears at a fire-temple
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 33a: 

  1. W.593, fol. 33a
  2. Title: Siyāvush on horseback
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 33b: 

  1. W.593, fol. 33b
  2. Title: Zoroaster visits Rustam
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 34b: 

  1. W.593, fol. 34b
  2. Title: A rainbow with the faces of the sun and moon
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 35b: 

  1. W.593, fol. 35b
  2. Title: A man on a headless horse
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 36b: 

  1. W.593, fol. 36b
  2. Title: Demons riding a boar and a bear
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 37b: 

  1. W.593, fol. 37b
  2. Title: A battle of Amir of Khurasan against the Turks
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 38b: 

  1. W.593, fol. 38b
  2. Title: A large, winged fish
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 39b: 

  1. W.593, fol. 39b
  2. Title: Enthroned Caliph Hārūn al-Rashīd and an old Arab who brought him water from the desert
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 40b: 

  1. W.593, fol. 40b
  2. Title: Nūshīrvān sleeping on the throne he built on top of the dam in the land of the Khazars
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 41b: 

  1. W.593, fol. 41b
  2. Title: The killing of Afrāsiyāb is discovered in the lake of Khanjast
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 42a: 

  1. W.593, fol. 42a
  2. Title: An idol on the shore of the Mediterranean Sea
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 42b: 

  1. W.593, fol. 42b
  2. Title: A man lowers an inscribed tablet from the bridge on the river Sabḥān to calm its waters
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 43a: 

  1. W.593, fol. 43a
  2. Title: Kay Khusraw watches fabulous creatures in Lake Zarah
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 44a: 

  1. W.593, fol. 44a
  2. Title: Divers return jewels thrown into Lake Shīrah to a king
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 44b: 

  1. W.593, fol. 44b
  2. Title: Divers in the Sea of ʿUmān save themselves by feeding the fish and monsters
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 46a: 

  1. W.593, fol. 46a
  2. Title: Two men in a boat watch sirens and a large turtle at the Sea of Qusṭanṭinīyah
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 46b: 

  1. W.593, fol. 46b
  2. Title: An angel warning the prophet Khiz̤r not to explore the depths of the Sea of Harkand
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 47a: 

  1. W.593, fol. 47a
  2. Title: An idol in the River Andalus warns people not to continue their journey
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 48b: 

  1. W.593, fol. 48b
  2. Title: Alexander the Great, his soldiers, and the prophets Khiḍr and Elijah at the Fountain of Life
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 50b: 

  1. W.593, fol. 50b
  2. Title: A king on horseback at a spring near Bāmiyān
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 51a: 

  1. W.593, fol. 51a
  2. Title: A naked woman exposes her private parts in front of an idol, a demon, and two men with a dog
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 52b: 

  1. W.593, fol. 52b
  2. Title: First half of a map of the world
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 53a: 

  1. W.593, fol. 53a
  2. Title: Second half of a map of the world
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 55a: 

  1. W.593, fol. 55a
  2. Title: Birds brought from Arabia
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 56a: 

  1. W.593, fol. 56a
  2. Title: Alexander the Great on horseback and two angels holding Mount Qāf
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 56b: 

  1. W.593, fol. 56b
  2. Title: Warriors on horseback fight enormous ants at Jabal al-aḥmar
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 59a: 

  1. W.593, fol. 59a
  2. Title: Lighthouses with a cat, a monkey, and the heads of animals and humans
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 60b: 

  1. W.593, fol. 60b
  2. Title: Two men watch a dragon and white vultures eating meat with diamonds sticking to it
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 61b: 

  1. W.593, fol. 61b
  2. Title: A woman, accompanied by a child, leads a bull with a demon lying at its feet
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 68a: 

  1. W.593, fol. 68a
  2. Title: Two young men shooting at snakes in a tree in the presence of a demon
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 68b: 

  1. W.593, fol. 68b
  2. Title: A civet cat in a cage
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 73a: 

  1. W.593, fol. 73a
  2. Title: A king enthroned during the feast of Nawrūz
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 74a: 

  1. W.593, fol. 74a
  2. Title: A dragon guards the treasure found by Anūshīrvān and his vizier Būzurjmihr
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 75a: 

  1. W.593, fol. 75a
  2. Title: The Caliph Muḥammad Amīn and a winged horse coming out of a pool into which his ring had fallen
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 77a: 

  1. W.593, fol. 77a
  2. Title: Bahrām Gūr hunting while Fitnah plays a harp
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 78b: 

  1. W.593, fol. 78b
  2. Title: The mosque compound in Mecca with the kaʿbah in the center
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 80a: 

  1. W.593, fol. 80a
  2. Title: A fight at the mosque in Medina to protect the tomb of the Prophet Muhammad
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 81a: 

  1. W.593, fol. 81a
  2. Title: Five men watch flames appear once every year in the Temple of David in Jerusalem
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 81b: 

  1. W.593, fol. 81b
  2. Title: King Solomon enthroned in the company of animals, humans, and demons
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 82b: 

  1. W.593, fol. 82b
  2. Title: The hanging of a man believed to be Jesus
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 83a: 

  1. W.593, fol. 83a
  2. Title: Jesus and a dragon with a tree growing from its mouth
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 85b: 

  1. W.593, fol. 85b
  2. Title: Three tombs of the prophets Isaac, Jacob, and Joseph in Bethlehem
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 87b: 

  1. W.593, fol. 87b
  2. Title: A lion and a ram tied to a post to delineate the boundary of the city of Baghdad
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 88b: 

  1. W.593, fol. 88b
  2. Title: Two thieves collect fruit in the garden of Solomon
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 89b: 

  1. W.593, fol. 89b
  2. Title: Queen Sheba enthroned with a number of men paying her homage
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 90b: 

  1. W.593, fol. 90b
  2. Title: Alexander the Great meets two harpies perched on top of two pillars in the town of Jābalasā
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 91a: 

  1. W.593, fol. 91a
  2. Title: An idol defends the fortress of Jāriyah with a bow and arrows
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 92b: 

  1. W.593, fol. 92b
  2. Title: A rooster made of copper puts pears into glass bowls
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 94a: 

  1. W.593, fol. 94a
  2. Title: A widow of a deceased king of Ceylon strikes his coffin with a sword
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 95a: 

  1. W.593, fol. 95a
  2. Title: Alexander the Great watches the wall being built between Gog and Magog
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 96a: 

  1. W.593, fol. 96a
  2. Title: Minaret in the town of Sarīrah
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 97a: 

  1. W.593, fol. 97a
  2. Title: One of two brothers sits on the wall on the river Nile
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 98a: 

  1. W.593, fol. 98a
  2. Title: Running lions near the town of Ṭabarīyah
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 99a: 

  1. W.593, fol. 99a
  2. Title: A large fish with four legs, known as Saqanqūr, at Fusṭāṭ
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 100b: 

  1. W.593, fol. 100b
  2. Title: White squirrels on trees in Kāshghar
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 102a: 

  1. W.593, fol. 102a
  2. Title: Moses removes a large stone from a well to water his sheep
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 103a: 

  1. W.593, fol. 103a
  2. Title: Three men worship an idol of Mūltān
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 104a: 

  1. W.593, fol. 104a
  2. Title: The devil copulates with a pig with his offspring on the right side
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 105b: 

  1. W.593, fol. 105b
  2. Title: The interior of a mosque in Haramān
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 106b: 

  1. W.593, fol. 106b
  2. Title: A warrior on horseback with two other men in front of a fortress in Yemen
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 107b: 

  1. W.593, fol. 107b
  2. Title: People turned into stone in a city in Ḥaḍramawt
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 108b: 

  1. W.593, fol. 108b
  2. Title: King Solomon, enthroned, speaks to the king of the Fortress of Qaṭrān
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 111a: 

  1. W.593, fol. 111a
  2. Title: A tree on Mount Lābīs with the heads of humans and animals growing from it
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 115a: 

  1. W.593, fol. 115a
  2. Title: The devil, a man killing a lion, and the vine
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 116b: 

  1. W.593, fol. 116b
  2. Title: A man being saved by clinging to the feet of a bird and a dog pulling out mandrakes with female heads
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 118a: 

  1. W.593, fol. 118a
  2. Title: ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib on horseback killing a dragon with the Prophet Muhammad and Bilāl looking on
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 119a: 

  1. W.593, fol. 119a
  2. Title: Three depictions of idols and worshipers from India and Andalusia
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 119b: 

  1. W.593, fol. 119b
  2. Title: Three depictions of idol worship
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 120a: 

  1. W.593, fol. 120a
  2. Title: Four depictions of idol worship
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 120b: 

  1. W.593, fol. 120b
  2. Title: Two depictions of idol worship
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 122a: 

  1. W.593, fol. 122a
  2. Title: Two men touch a nude statue
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 122b: 

  1. W.593, fol. 122b
  2. Title: Anūshīrvān’s veiled body lying on a throne, visited by the Caliph al-Maʾmūn and another man
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 123a: 

  1. W.593, fol. 123a
  2. Title: A man watches a fantastic animal
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 124a: 

  1. W.593, fol. 124a
  2. Title: An official shows Alexander the Great treasure hidden in large jars
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 125b: 

  1. W.593, fol. 125b
  2. Title: A man fights a lion
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 126b: 

  1. W.593, fol. 126b
  2. Title: A man, watched by a lion and a jackal, tries to catch a monkey in a tree
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 130a: 

  1. W.593, fol. 130a
  2. Title: A man, watched by an ape, tries to milk a lioness
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 132b: 

  1. W.593, fol. 132b
  2. Title: An angel leads a demon who told a story to King Solomon
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 133b: 

  1. W.593, fol. 133b
  2. Title: A group of women beat a man whom they mistook for an intruder
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 134b: 

  1. W.593, fol. 134b
  2. Title: Three kings of the people of ʿĀd tossed up into the air for mocking Moses
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 136a: 

  1. W.593, fol. 136a
  2. Title: Giant women, who later became part of Alexander the Great’s army, battle warriors on horseback
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 136b: 

  1. W.593, fol. 136b
  2. Title: Alexander the Great and his men meet a giant near Bābil
  3. Form: Illustration

fol. 137b: 

  1. W.593, fol. 137b